Pakistan is a society where the people are divided among three taxonomies on the basis of the economy that segregates the society further into cultural, religious and political realms. These discriminations are in fact the reason that this society has never bound itself into a nationalistic character thus it lacks progression to a developed state. No matter how economically viable it would become and politically enlightened it would be without the acquisition of knowledge this class division would always persist.
Here in this article, the effort has been made to explain the Comte Law of Three stages while interpreting the societal physiognomies of the three major classes of Pakistan. The law of three stages which was propounded by the sociologist Auguste Comte postulates that the human society evolved from a historically theological stage to the positivist stage and in between lies the metaphysical stage.
Let’s implement this proposition on Pakistani society. The land of Pakistan is an amalgamation of heterogeneous cultures and traditions but here the elucidation rest upon the classes. Pakistani society when divided from the Indian sub-continent has inherited many cultures and beliefs. The Indian Sub-continent firstly affected by the polytheism constituted Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism; then with the monotheistic Islamic notion of Muslim dynasties and then with the missionary based British Colonialism. Religion is indeed a system and its sub-units or sub-systems constitute economy, politics, and culture according to the theory given by Comte.
In the Theological stage, the human mind search for the primary and final causes of phenomena. It argues that the apparent anomalies in the world are in fact the interventions of supernatural agents. This is the “necessary starting point of human intelligence” human’s focus on discovering the knowledge. Comte believed all primitive societies went through some period in which life is completely theocentric. At this stage, the economic and political matters lie in the hands of tribes and clans. In Pakistan, this class mostly resides in rural areas in the language of Tonnies based on gemeinschaft. People of this class, nevertheless believe on monotheism but also have perceptions surrounded by supernatural deities, superstitious believes and orthodox dogmas, here it can relate that they are yet influenced by the polytheism of back then Indian sub-continent. This weakness and lack of awareness are exploited by the political class here which constituted feudal lords, tribal heads, and sajadah naseheens. This makes them economically downtrodden and socially despondent.
The second stage, the Metaphysical one is the quest of the human beings which is the same as the first stage but the concept changes in the expanse that now the supernatural agents are replaced by abstract entities, where there is the belief that abstract forces control the behavior of human beings. At this stage, the economy and political setup hold by the oligarchies such as ecclesiastical class, dynasties and despotic tyrannies and dictatorships. In Pakistan, the metaphysical stage consists of the middle class. This class resides in rural and as well as urban areas so as have traits of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. They are educated and highly believe in communitarianism. Politically they have revolutionary mindset; they are a proponent of true democracy but lacks opportunities to play an optimistic and constructive role in politics. This class is ruled by an authoritative mindset which portrays itself pluralistic but in reality a sheer contrast. In economic terms, they consist of salaried class, entrepreneurs, and petty agriculturists. Religiously they are confused in a sense that they believe in their monotheistic religion but yet they have a tinge of skepticism. Thus, this class is dwelling somewhere between the theological and metaphysical stage and trying to reach the enlightenment.
In the third stage which is also referred as positivism, at this stage, the mind stops looking for causes of phenomena and limits itself strictly to laws governing them. In this stage, the human mind accepts reasons and logic. This stage has a little essence of skepticism where human mind sustains itself on scientific reasoning and empiricism. The purpose of this phase was for people to find solutions to social problems and bring them into force despite the proclamations of “human rights” or prophecy of “the will of God.” This stage is essentially based on industrialist class where the economy and political authority rests with them.
In Pakistan, this last stage of positivism encircled the elitist class here. After partition the elite class which was more influenced by the British colonialism moves towards modern positivism they heavily relied on scientific reasons but they apply these methodology personal lifestyles. Elite being as the dominant class in the political realms tried to control the society in a dictatorship style. They are educated; somewhat enlightened but being a ruler class they ignore the democratic norms and rely heavily on the politically orthodox philosophy such as the oligarchic and aristocratic state. On the whole, they are religiously deviants and believe in excessive individualism. This class includes business tycoons and industrialists. This class is the epitome of Comet’s positivism but lack respect for humanity in political scenario due to their vested interests.
Here lies the question that how would the society of Pakistan evolve itself to a positivist state as a whole with such mammoth extremities. Philosophically and epistemologically this society has far more to go.