Though the historical peace deal has signed between the U.S. and Afghanistan, the skepticism concerning perpetual peace is still prevalent among the respective stakeholders. The progress in intra-Afghan dialogue is in doldrums. Because of the ongoing state of affairs in Afghanistan, it has become clear that attaining peace in the country is a herculean task and much more difficult than it has been perceived.
Afghanistan is a complex state regarding social and political system. The war between the U.S. and Afghanistan is not the only conflict in the country. The ethnic conflicts among numerous caste and creed, tensions between liberals and non-liberals in the country, trust deficit among the political parties have made the peace in the state a hard nut to crack.
The international and regional stakeholders are ambiguous vis-à-vis the end of extremism, provocation of human rights, and establishment of an inclusive political system.
Despite political and economic support to the Afghanis, the peace is still a forlorn hope. The reason behind the state of affairs is deep-rooted rigid norms regarding war, gender and ethnic disparities, and the trust gap with foreigners in Afghanistan. The Afghan society has glitches of drug trafficking, weapon smuggling humanitarian crisis along with rampant poverty, illiteracy and corruption owing to these ingrained norms. All these are the predicaments in the way of long-lasting and impeccable peace at the individual and national level.
The history of Afghanistan tells that the region has always been attacked by the foreign powers. This has made the locals aggressive in their behaviors. Likewise, leadership biases and socio-economic situation also has a far wide impact on one’s norms as argued by the social psychologist Bibb Latané. For decades, Afghanis have been ruled by the far-right and nationalist leaders. Moreover, the prevailing poverty has also been ensuing various dereliction in the society. As commented by Benjamin Franklin, “Poverty often deprives man of all spirits and virtues.”
As the art of peace is justice and equality in social, political, and economic domains. But they cannot be attained in any society until and unless, the local people all well aware of their rights; and leaders accept cultural diversity.
To overcome these impediments, norms transmutation is ineluctable in the Afghan society. Norms of society are not intransigent and could be changed with time as described by the psychologists Susan Fiske and Steven Neuberg, the psychologists at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and Arizona State University, respectively, in 1990. That’s why stringent efforts to reform the Afghan society is a pressing need of time.
For this purpose, well-collaborative, indefatigable, meaningful, and all-encompassing efforts of international and regional players for the articulation of pro-peace social norms are indispensable. World powers are required to make exertions to enhance the literacy rate in the country. They should support education activities not to spread their ideologies rather to inculcate the true spirit of peace in the individuals. There is no blinking on the fact that education is vital for social norms.
As peace in Afghanistan is inexorable for all the Muslim countries of the middle and south Asia. These countries -by putting aside their sectarian and geo-political conflicts- ought to establish a platform to make the Afghan stakeholders agreed to implement the true Islamic norms of humanitarianism, harmony, and peace.
In short, the social reforms in the Afghan society are pertinent. Norms transfiguration is a prerequisite of peace in Afghanistan which can be attained when the western world changes its norm of egoism in pursuit of their interests and the Muslim world change its obduracy of sectarianism.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in the blog are the writer’s own opinion. Dunya News will not be held responsible for any kind of discrepancy.