Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. It occupies 347190 sq.km areas out of 996096 sq.km total area of Pakistan. It forming 44% of the total area of Pakistan, but it has the smallest population. Its population consist only 5% of the population of Pakistan. Balochistan situated in the south-west of Pakistan. Its boundaries touched with Iran, Afghanistan and Arabia Sea. It is covered, protected and bounded by Arabian Sea water as well as Suleiman Range, Toba Kakar Range and Chagi Hills and mountains. The Chaman pass connects it with CAR’s. It has very important geo strategic position. This unique position makes it distinguished and attractive region. Balochistan has abundant natural resources which include oil, gas, gold, coal and other precious materials and minerals. God made it a home of opportunities and resources but human turned it into a land of hatred and Terrorism. Today the land of Balochistan is red with the blood. The question arose that “why Balochistan is burning? Why there is intolerance and disturbance in Balochistan?” The answer of these is not easy. There are different reasons we have to go back toward historical background of Balochistan socio-political development.
Balochistan was a self governed area from centuries. Balochistan was divided into line of political units. Each political unit was governed by their respective Khan’s Nawab or landlord. Balochistan remained tribal society. There is tribal system in Balochistan. Each tribe has their own chief, who governed their tribe. With the passage of time tribal institute became powerful due to these reasons Balochistan became strong hold of khan’s Nawab and land lords. After partition, Balochistan status remained up to 70’s. In 70’s Balochistan status was upgraded as a province but never get democratic setup due to strong influence of Khan’s Nawab and tribal elite class. The Khan’s Nawab and tribal elite class became stronger in Balochistan due to disturbance, anarchy and monarchy in Balochistan. These non democratic attitudes bring Balochistan toward present situation. All matters are regulated by Jirga system. Although according to constitution jirga has no right to decide any case, but Government always support jirga system in Balochistan, which push Balochistan toward dangerous and anarchy. The judiciary and democratic institutions are weak in Balochistan. People have to trust in them, so they hold jirga. Jirga are held by elite and feudal leaders, so Balochistan became the strong hold elite, tribal, Khan and Nawabs. These institutions became prominent on the other hand democratic institution became weak. In this result poor people became tool in the hands of tribal elite, khan and Nawab. The poor masses of Balochistan living under the umbrella of elite class.
After 1970’s when Balochistan got the status of province the Khan’s Nawabs elite class occupied seats in national and provincial assemblies and parliament. They legislate for their interest, so democracy fail to gain their power in Balochistan. Due to geo strategic position Balochistan became the ground of international game. Different agencies are working in Balochistan for their own interest and agendas, so Balochistan is sandwich of global game. According of recent report of a think tank approximately 25 countries are involved in the game of Balochistan. Each state want to occupy Balochistan, therefore they are working to increase their influence in Balochistan. Balochistan fallen into the hands of criminals. They are playing with the future of Balochs and Balochistan.
Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan by area but Balochistan is a multi cultural, multi linguistic and multi religious area. The Balochistan divided in the following lines on the basis of linguistic is under,
- Balochs 40%
- Pashtoon 35%
- Brahvi 15%
- Settlers 10%
Due to this classification Balochistan divided in the lines of cultures and languages. Therefore there is no unity among the masses of Balochistan. Due to this reason nationalist and religious parties became prominent in the Balochistan politics. These parties play an important role in the politics of Pakistan. Due to Khanism, Nawabism and landlordism, education sector of Balochistan is in a very bad condition.
In the whole province there is only one board of intermediate and secondary education in Quetta, which controls the whole province examination. It is a joke with education, that how a single board can control 3, 47,190sqr km area? Most villages have no schools. There is no proper educational infrastructure in the province. Education is virtue but people of Baluchistan are without education and there is lowest literacy rate in Balochistan. The literacy rate is 26%. The female literacy rate is only 8%. There is darkness in the province. There is no socioeconomic and educational development in Balochistan. These are main reasons and factors responsible for burning of Balochistan.