As we all know that our country is going through severe water shortage. There are two main reasons for this, one is natural due to prolong drought which is beyond the control of man and the other due to the gross negligence in the development and mismanagement of water resources.
Global warming had also brought climatic changes for the few years in our country. This leads to less rainfall which causes the water shortage in rivers, lakes, and dams etc. Excess cutting of trees is equally responsible as global warming for less rainfall.
Few years back, when the climatic conditions were normal and rainfalls on time there were no resources to preserve water. If we had dams and other resources at that time to preserve water, today we could easily be able to cope up water shortage. However, it’s not too late yet, if our government derives its attention towards this matter we can stop this matter from getting worst.
The other reason behind water shortage is mismanagement of water and its usage. People are using the water irresponsibly without being aware of future difficulties which occurs due to lack of water. People are doing their day to day activities with open taps like brushing teeth, taking bath, washing clothes etc. through which billions of gallons of water get wasted.
On the other hand, clean water also become precious for us because we are running out of clean water, many human activities are responsible for polluting water such as pesticides and fertilizers that wash away from farms, untreated human waste water, and industrial waste. Even groundwater is not safe from pollution, as many pollutants can leach into underground aquifers.
Another major reason which leads to water shortage is Indo-Pak water disputes. The conflict between Pakistan and India over water resources has been developing for a long time. Dialogue has apparently failed to solve these crises which relates to the Indus treaty. The construction of dams and barrages by India over River Chenab and River Jhelum in violation of the Indus Basin Treaty created the problem of water shortage in Pakistan.
In addition, Pakistan has poor water storage techniques and facilities. This leads to loss of water to the sea at the rate of over 360 cubic meters each second. Lack of facilities such as dams, which can be used for water storage, can be blamed for this wastage. These problems hinder the access of water by th e population, and when India constructs a dam along the Chenab River, this is a further threat to Pakistan.
Lastly, the government should take some remedial measures to overcome water shortage in Pakistan. Government should construct dams immediately. Further more, the government should make laws on water conservation like many western countries. Government should take steps to controlled overpumping of underground water and over irrigation practices. Authorities should take appropriate steps to curb the illegal extraction of water and ensure its equitable distribution.
In addition, water now a day is supplied to farmers at a very negligible cost and that’s why they do not treat water as a precious resource; therefore, there is a need to increase the water prices to make irrigators realize the importance of this asset. People should be educated to conserve water by cooperation.
The problems faced by the water sector in the country are many, acute and serious and it is also known that we can generate more water by the building more reservoirs. Also, implementation of the recommendations will enable the country to meet the challenges, and environmentally and financially sustainable development and management of limited water resources. At the same time, it will enable us to utilize every drop of water for our future.