In August 1947, sub-continent was divided into two parts. One was India and the other was Pakistan. In this blog, I will try to explore all the possible reasons behind the partition.
As the British extended their control, the local leaders saw their authority declining. Lord Dalhousie’s use of the doctrine of lapse was particularly unpopular. The seizure of Oudh in 1856 convinced many of the Indian leaders that the British were simply greedy grabbers. The mistreat of the Mughal empire was another cause of unrest. By 1857 the emperor had little power left. English had replaced Persian as the official language of administration and as the language in which education would be given.
Religious and social
As British grew so did the spread of British culture we have already seen how the British considered it heir duty to spread their superior culture. In 1835, one English administrator talked of how a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. The British treated many of the Indians as an inferior race. Indians and British did not generally mix of culture in a large uncivilized world. This arrogant attitude coupled with the introduction of a new way of life with its railways roads and telegraphs was unacceptable to many Indians. Many Indians feared that Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism were under threat.
We have already seen how the British merchants made substantial profits. From their trading goods in textiles. The British also followed a practice imposing high taxation to ensure that they exploited India’s wealth to the full peasants and small landowners, in particular, found it difficult to pay the increased taxes and resentment grew. It was also true that some tax collectors were corrupt and kept some of the tax money for themselves. The British were also keeping the salary of sepoys low causing more resentment.
There were more deep-seated reasons for discontent amongst members of the armed forces. Most of the soldiers in the EIC army were Indian. The officer class was almost exclusively British. The use of Indian troops in Afghanistan had also proved unpopular as Hindu soldiers did not want to leave mother India. It was no wonder that one Indian observer in 1857 said all the native army is dissatisfied with the government.