Democritus first suggested the existence of the atom but it took almost two millennia before the atom was placed on a solid foothold as a fundamental chemical object by John Dalton (1766-1844). Although two centuries old, Dalton’s atomic theory remains valid in modern chemical thought.
Two profoundly destabilizing scientific ideas ricochet through the twentieth century, dissecting it into two unequal parts: the atom, and the byte. Each is foreshadowed by an earlier century but dazzles into full prominence in the twentieth, which was infect the birth and growth of one of the most powerful and dangerous scientific ideas in the history of science. Each begins its life as a rather abstract scientific concept but grows to invade multiple human discourses there by result in the huge transformation. But the most crucial parallel between these ideas, by far, is conceptual: each represents the irreducible unit – the building block, the organizational unit, of a larger whole: the atom of a matter; the byte of digitalized information.
In sum of all parts there are only parts.But the question is why does this property (being least divisible unit of a larger form) imbue these particular ideas with such potency and force. It is an ultimate understanding that smallest part is paramount to understand the whole. You can only decipher the meaning of sentence by deciphering every individual word; yet a sentence carries more meaning than any of the individual word.
The atom and byte provide fundamentally new scientific and technological understanding of their respective systems. You can neither explain the behavior of the matter without invoking the atomic nature, nor can understand the complexities of computing without comprehending the structural anatomy of digitized information. With the course of physics and chemistry, we can go back to molecules and atoms to explain the phenomenon of deep structural mystery of the living world. Group of atoms bonded together to form molecules. A colossal network of molecules sequel to super-molecules (biomolecules) which possess the ability of self-organizationwhich is explained by Professor Jean Marie Lehn (Nobel Laureate, 1987). James Watson and Francis Crick demonstrated the model of DNA as double helix at Cambridge in 1953. Watson and Crick solved the structure of DNA by realizing that the A in one strand was paired against the T in the other and G against the C.
“The four nitrogen bases also called nucleobases found in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Each of these bases are often abbreviated a single letter: A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), T (thymine). The bases come in two categories: thymine andcytosine are pyrimidines, while adenine and guanine are purines”
At the sides of nucleic acid structure, phosphate molecules successively connect the two sugar-rings of two adjacent nucleotide monomers, thereby creating a long chain biomolecule. These chain-joins of phosphates with sugars (ribose or deoxyribose) create the “backbone” strands for a single or double helix biomolecule.
In the double helix of DNA, the two strands are oriented chemically in opposite directions, which permits base pairing by providing complementarity between the two bases, and which is essential for replication of or transcription of the encoded information found in DNA. Self-arrangement of atoms, molecules, biomolecules encoding the complete set of information and instructions in the form of genome followed by complete maneuver of sequential reactions and joining of these building blocks actually brings the life in existence and introduced the term evolution. In-depth classification and process of evolution was described by Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel, Francis Galton, William Batesons and many other scientists in their own way in the past. However, evolution finds its way at his best and stops itself after a limit. Homo sapiens are the perfect assembling of these building blocks (sum of all parts).